The city of Napa is the largest city and county seat of Napa County, California. It is the principal city of the Napa County Metropolitan Statistical Area, with a population of 80,011 as of the 2010 census. It is the second-largest city in California’s Wine Country, after Santa Rosa. Napa was incorporated as a city in 1872.
The name “Napa” was probably derived from the name given to a southern Nappan village whose native people shared the area with elk, deer, grizzlies and cougars for many centuries, according to Napa historian Kami Santiago. At the time of the first recorded exploration into Napa Valley in 1823, the majority of the inhabitants consisted of Native American Indians. Padre José Altimira, founder of Mission San Francisco Solano in Sonoma, led the expedition. Spanish priests converted some natives; the rest were attacked and dispersed by Spanish soldiers. American farmers began arriving in the 1830s.
Before California was granted statehood in 1849, the Napa Valley was in the Territory of California’s District of Sonoma. In 1850 when counties were first organized, Napa became one of the original counties of California. At the time, its boundaries also included Lake County to the north. By this time, the indigenous people were either working as field laborers or living in small bands in the hills surrounding the valley. Tensions between the white settlers and Native Americans broke into war in 1850, with a white man’s death resulting in soldiers hunting down and killing all the natives they could find, driving the remainder north toward Clear Lake. In 1851, the first courthouse was erected. By 1870, the Native American population consisted of only a few laborers and servants working for the white settlers.
Geography and Environment
According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 18.1 square miles (47 km2), of which 17.8 square miles (46 km2) is land and 0.3 square miles (0.78 km2) (1.69%) is water. The Napa River traverses the city on its journey to the San Pablo Bay. The city has conducted a variety of waterfront development along the banks of the river, including certain fill operations governed by the United States Army Corps of Engineers regulations. The Napa River Flood Project has been in progress since the late 1990s, with the goal of mitigating the risk of flooding along a 6-mile (9.7 km) stretch of the river and 1-mile (1.6 km) of Napa Creek.
The 2010 United States Census reported that Napa had a population of 76,915. The population density was 4,238.5 people per square mile (1,636.5/km²). The racial makeup of Napa was 57,754 (75.1%) White, 486 (0.6%) African American, 637 (0.8%) Native American, 1,755 (2.3%) Asian, 144 (0.2%) Pacific Islander, 13,256 (17.2%) from other races, and 2,883 (3.7%) from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 28,923 persons (37.6%).
The Census reported that 75,678 people (98.4% of the population) lived in households, 568 (0.7%) lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, and 669 (0.9%) were institutionalized.
There were 28,166 households, out of which 9,826 (34.9%) had children under the age of 18 living in them, 13,862 (49.2%) were opposite-sex married couples living together, 3,201 (11.4%) had a female householder with no husband present, 1,571 (5.6%) had a male householder with no wife present. There were 1,694 (6.0%) unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, and 221 (0.8%) same-sex married couples or partnerships. 7,457 households (26.5%) were made up of individuals and 3,278 (11.6%) had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.69. There were 18,634 families (66.2% of all households); the average family size was 3.25.